Skip to Main Content

APA 7th ed. Style Guide

This guide gives an overview of formatting a research paper using APA 7th edition citation style

What is a Reference List?

What is a reference list?

The reference list is found at the end of a paper and gives the reader the information necessary for finding a reference/source. A reference list includes entries for only those sources or works that were drawn upon to support the ideas and claims in the paper. 

The same basic information is required for print and online sources, so the same template can be used.

What is needed for reference list entries?

A reference list entry should answer the questions Who? When? What? and Where?


  • Author: Who is responsible (wrote, produced, edited, etc.) for the work?
  • Date: When was the work published?
  • Title: What is this work called?
  • Source: Where can I retrieve this work?
Formatting information can be found on the Formatting Your Paper tab of this research guide or the APA 7th edition Publication Manual.

Reference List Overview

Use the tabs to navigate to different types of works (resources/sources used in your paper). The tabs correlate to examples found in chapter 10 of the APA 7th edition Publication Manual. For additional examples or clarification, check chapters 9 and 10 of the APA 7th edition Publication Manual. You can also contact Amber Owrey,, for questions about APA or schedule a research coach appointment.

Textual Works

Includes periodicals (journal articles, newspapers, blog posts, etc.), books, reference works, chapters in books, reports, gray literature, conference sessions, dissertations, etc. 

Please note blog posts are considered textual works as are online versions of journal articles, newspapers, and magazines.

Data Sets, Software, Tests

Includes computer software, apps, equipment, tests, scales, inventories, etc.

Audiovisual Media

Includes audiovisual works (YouTube videos, speech audio recordings, podcasts, etc.)

Online Media 

Includes social media, webpages, and websites

The following is an example of a journal article reference list entry from APA 7th edition Publication Manual found on page 283. This template can be used for other entries as well.

Correlation (color coding) between article and reference list entry

A reference list entry in sequential order: the author followed by a period, date in parenthesis, the title of the journal article in sentence case followed by a period, and lastly the source which includes the journal title italicized in title case followed by a comma the volume number italicized, the issue number in parenthesis followed by a comma, the page numbers followed by a period and lastly the doi. 

The author refers to the person, persons, or entity responsible for creating the work.

The date refers to the publication date of the article think when was this article published.

The title refers to what the article is called.

The source includes information about where someone can find or retrieve the article.