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APA 7th ed. Style Guide

This guide gives an overview of formatting a research paper using APA 7th edition citation style

What is Audiovisual Media?

Audiovisual Media

Works that have visual and/or audio components. The author information may be different for audiovisual material, use the following guidelines for the author component in a reference entry:

  • Film --> Director
  • TV Series --> Executive Producer(s)
  • TV Series Episode --> Writer and Director of the Episode
  • Podcast --> Host or Executive Producer
  • Podcast Episode --> Host
  • Webinar --> Instructor
  • Classical Music Album or Song --> Composer
  • Modern Music Album or Song --> Recording Artist
  • Artwork --> Artist
  • Online Streaming Video --> Person who uploaded the video
  • Photograph --> Photographer

In addition, stay consistent in the words used to describe the work in the description. 

Basic formatting for the two categories of audiovisual materials (works that stand alone and works part of a greater whole) are below.

Works that Stand Alone

Basic Format: Author, A. A. (Date). Title of work [Description]. Production Company. https://xxxxxx

Works that are Part of a Greater Whole

Basic Format: Author, A. A. (Date). Title of episode [Description]. In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV Series. Production Company. https://xxxxxx

Additional reference list entries are below or in the APA 7th edition Publication Manual.


*Please Note that all reference list entries should be formatted with double spacing between lines and a hanging indent.* 

Film or Video

Heller, M. (Director). (2019). A beautiful day in the neighborhood [film]. Sony Pictures Home Edition; Big Peach Films.

TV Series

Eaton, R., Fellowes, J., Neame, G., Trubridge, L., & Marchant, N. (Executive Producers). (2010-2015). Downton Abbey [TV series]. 

TV Episode or Webisode

Whedon, J. (Writer), Minear, T. (Writer), & Solomon, D. (Director). (2002, October 4). Out of gas (Season 1, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In T. Minear, &J. Whedon (Executive Producers), Firefly. Mutant Enemy; Twentieth Century Fox Television.

YouTube Video or other Streaming Video

SoulPancake. (2013, July 11). An experiment in gratitude: The science of happiness [Video]. YouTube.


Morehart, P. (Host). (2016-present). Dewey decibel [Audio podcast]. American Libraries. 

Clip art or Stock Image

j4p4n. (2020). Frog-new version [Clip art]. Openclipart.